Thalassemia: The Disease And Its Treatment Procedures: Thalassemia is a kind of disease which is mostly inherited. It is a kind if blood disorder that can happen in a human body when there is an abnormal form of haemoglobin. Now, this haemoglobin is a kind of protein molecule in the red blood cells that happen to carry oxygen in a human body. if there is a disorder then there is an extensive destruction of this red blood cells and so it leads to anaemia.
Thalassemia: The Disease And Its Treatment Procedures
As it is said earlier that this disease is kind if inherited, which means at least one of the parents or both the parents must be the carrier of this disease. It mainly happens because of genetic mutations or the deletion of certain key genes. One needs to know about the thalasemia treatment cost in India when the disease is detected in a human body.
Diagnosis of the disease
In this disease, most children start showing symptoms and signs in their first 2 years after birth if they have moderate to sever thalassemia. So, the doctor confirms it after running a blood rest on them. If a child has thalassemia then the blood test will reveal certain diagnosis:
- A very low level of red blood cells.
- Pale red blood cells.
- Fewer amount of red blood cells than expected.
- The red blood cells are varied in size and shape.
- Red blood cells with uneven haemoglobin distribution, which gives the cells a bull’s eye appearance under the microscope
The blood test can also measure the amount of the iron present in the child’s blood and evaluate their haemoglobin count. One can also perform a DNA analysis in order to diagnose the thalassemia and to find out if an individual is carrying mutated haemoglobin genes or not.
Testing can also be done before a baby is born to find out if he or she has thalassemia and determine how severe it may be. The tests that can be performed on a foetus are as follows:
Chorionic villous sampling
It is a test which is mostly done on the 11th week of pregnancy and it involves a very small piece of placenta for evaluation.
This is a test which is usually done at the 16th week of pregnancy and here the doctors take a sample of the fluid that surrounds the foetus.
Assisted reproductive technology
A form of assisted reproductive technology that combines pre implantation genetic diagnosis with in vitro fertilization may help future parents who already have thalassemia or who are carriers of a defective haemoglobin gene give birth to healthy babies. This procedure includes retrieving mature eggs and fertilizing them with a sperm in a dish in a laboratory. The embryos are then tested for the defective genes, and only those without genetic defects are finally implanted into the uterus.
Here are the different procedures depending how serious the disease is.
Treatments for mild thalassemia
In this case of thalassemia the signs and symptoms are very little or minor and occasionally the patient might need blood transfusion. This is mainly done when there is a surgery or post delivery of a baby or to manage any kind of thalassemia related complications. People who are suffering from severe beta thalassemia then they will need proper blood transfusions. And because this treatment can cause iron overload, they will also need treatment to remove excess iron.
Treatments for moderate to severe thalassemia may include:
Frequent blood transfusions: in case of severe thalasemia, the patient may need frequent blood transfusions every 3 or 4 weeks. By doing this, over the time the blood transfusion can cause a build up of iron in the patient’s blood. This can also damage the liver, heart and other organs. In order to get rid of that extra iron one can need some extra medications.
Stem cell transplant: this is also known as the bone marrow transplantation which is applied on the children who are borne with severe thalassemia. It can eliminate the lifelong need for blood transfusions and drugs to control the iron overload. There are best bmt doctors in India who can do this procedure successfully.
But bone marrow transplantation is not a very easy process to face. For that one needs months or even years of preparation. First of all one needs a donor who will provide stem cells for the one who is suffering from the disease and need the transplantation. Once the donor is confirmed, then the patient has to go under a few chemotherapy and radiology sessions so that their body can be prepared to take the procedure of bone transplantation.
Lifestyle and home remedies
One can also manage their thalassemia by choosing a healthy lifestyle. One needs to avoid excess iron and they should not take any excess vitamin or other supplements which contains iron even the doctor does not prescribes them to do so.
Eating a healthy diet is very much necessary in these cases. Balanced diet means one gets proper dose of nutrition and it can boost one’s energy. The doctor can also recommend to take a folic acid supplement to help your body make new red blood cells. Also, to keep your bones healthy, make sure your diet contains adequate calcium and vitamin D.
It is also necessary to avoid infections. One needs to protect themselves from infections by frequent hand washing and by avoiding sick people. This is especially important if one has their spleen removed. One will also need an annual flu shot, as well as the meningitis, pneumococcal and hepatitis B vaccines to prevent those infections.
In order to know the bone marrow transplant cost in India one needs to check with the hospitals and doctors who are expert in doing this. Though it is a complicated process but it can also give relief to the patient.
So, one needs to start thalassemia treatment the moment they find out that they are suffering from it. Taking immediate action can definitely increase the life span of the patients.