Roy Acuff: Country music is an American popular genre that originated in rural areas of the South and West in the early 20th century. This musical form can be distinguished by ballads, dance tunes and simple forms usually accompanied by instruments such as banjos, fiddles, guitars and harmonicas.
Roy Acuff was one of the most influential figures in country music history, born September 15, 1903 in Maynardville, Tennessee and often known as the “King of Country Music”. Acuff contributed immensely to shaping its sound and style during his early work in the 1930s and 1940s; also serving as performer, promoter and publisher in this regard.
From Baseball to Music
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Acuff was raised in a musical family and learned the fiddle and harmonica as soon as he could. A talented athlete, Acuff dreamt of becoming a professional baseball player but was forced to call off his dream due to a severe sunstroke which negatively impacted both his health and eyesight.
After recovering from his illness, Acuff took to music as a form of expression and started performing locally radio shows in the early 1930s. Soon thereafter he formed his own band known as Tennessee Crackerjacks; later known as Smoky Mountain Boys; with whom he created an unmistakable style of singing and playing that combined elements from traditional folk, gospel, and blues music into one uniquely distinctive sound.
A Star of the Grand Ole Opry
Acuff first appeared on the Grand Ole Opry radio program, broadcast live performances of country music from Nashville, Tennessee, in 1938. At that time, it was widely considered one of the premier platforms for country music performance – and Acuff quickly established himself as a main attraction on its ranks, performing every week for nearly four decades and delighting millions of listeners with his songs and charisma.
Acuff’s most memorable songs included: “The Great Speckled Bird”, “The Wabash Cannonball”, “Night Train to Memphis”, and “Fireball Mail”. These tracks showcased both his powerful and expressive voice as well as his adept fiddle playing skills. He also introduced many country artists such as Hank Williams, Kitty Wells and Minnie Pearl into the Grand Ole Opry.
A Pioneer of the Country Music Industry
Acuff was not only a talented performer but an astute businessman as well. In 1942 he co-founded Acuff-Rose Music with Fred Rose – the first major country music publishing house dedicated to country music publishing – signing and promoting many talented country songwriters such as Hank Williams, Roy Orbison, the Everly Brothers as well as protecting rights royalties of creators while expanding market and audience for country music creation.
In 1948, Acuff ran for governor of Tennessee as a Republican but lost out to Gordon Browning, an elected Democrat. Even so, Acuff continued recording and performing throughout the 1950s and 60s regardless of shifting trends in country music; appearing in movies like Night Train to Memphis, Home in San Antone and Hee Haw.
A Legend of Country Music
Acuff passed away in Nashville, Tennessee at the age of 89 on November 23, 1992, leaving behind a legacy of music and achievements which won him the respect and admiration of generations of country music fans and artists alike. He became the first living person ever honored with induction into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1962; additionally receiving numerous honors such as Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award 1987 and National Medal of Arts 1991.
Acuff is widely recognized as one of the most influential figures in country music history. He is widely credited with shifting the genre away from its initial string band/hoedown format towards one based around singing singers that has made it internationally successful. Additionally, Acuff helped establish Nashville as the center of country music industry while upholding and perpetuating traditions and values associated with country music.
Hank Williams once described Hank as the biggest singer this music ever knew: you could book him without worrying about crowds; for drawing power in the South it was Roy Acuff and then God”.