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PSU Full Form: What Is PSU and About All Details



PSU Full Form: In India, a public sector undertaking (PSU) or a public sector enterprise is a government-owned enterprise, a government-owned corporation, statutory corporation, or nationalized company.

These establishments are owned entirely or partly by the Indian government, one of India’s numerous state or territory governments, or both.

In Public Sector Enterprises, the government owns more than half of the company’s total share capital. These businesses can be formed under the company act, a state act, or a Federal Act.

PSUs are divided into two types: central public sector undertakings (CPSU, CPSE), which are held entirely or partially by the Indian government, and state-level public sector undertakings (SLPSU, SLPSE), which are owned entirely or partly by state or territory governments.

PSU Full Form and Use of the pus

PSU Full Form

There were just five public sector firms in India in 1951, but by March 2021, there were 365, including seven new defense PSUs. As of March 31, 2019, these businesses have a combined investment of around 16.41 lakh crore. As of March 31, 2019, the total paid-up capital was around 2.76 lakh crore. CPSEs made a profit of around Rs. 25.43 lakh crore in the financial year 2018–19.

PSU Full Form and India’s Economic History

PSU Full Form India, a public sector India, was predominantly an agrarian country with a shaky industrial basis when it gained independence in 1947. There were only eighteen state-owned Indian Ordnance Factories, which had been built to minimize the British Indian Army’s reliance on imported weapons.

With the British Raj electing to leave agricultural production and what little Western aping industrialization to the private sector, with commercial Tea processing, Jute mills, such as the Acland Mill, Railways, Electricity generation, Banks, Coal mines, Steel mills, Civil Engineering funded and owned by private individuals, such as Jamsetji Tata, families, or through privately owned and sometimes traded companies, such as the Bombay Stock.

Exchange, In the first half of the twentieth century, vocal critics of the Western capitalist system, notably the Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi, argued for a self-sufficient, mostly agrarian, communal village-based living for the populace.

Others chastised New Delhi, particularly the Presidency, for failing to build enough British Raj-funded Western-style schools, public libraries, universities, medical schools, engineering colleges, hospitals, and asylums to allow the rapidly growing population to follow Britain’s lead in industrialization.

The National Consensus after independence

The national consensus after independence was in favor of rapid economic industrialisation, which was considered as the route to economic development, improved living conditions, and economic sovereignty.

The first Industrial Policy Resolution, released in 1948, was built on the Bombay Plan, which emphasized the need for government participation and regulation. It spelled out the basic contours of the industrial growth strategy.

Following that, the Planning Commission was established by cabinet resolution in March 1950, and the Industrial (Development and Regulation) Act was passed in 1951, with the goal of empowering the government to regulate industrial development.

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru pushed for a mixed economy and an economic policy centered on import substitution industrialization.

He believed that the development and modernization of the Indian economy required the construction of basic and heavy industry. To meet Nehru’s national industrialization objective, India’s second five-year plan (1956–60) and the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 stressed the expansion of public sector firms.

Dr. V. Krishnamurthy, renowned as the “Father of Public Sector Undertakings in India,” carried on his vision. The Feldman–Mahalanobis model was named after Indian statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, who was essential in its development.

The establishment of PSUs was primarily motivated by the need to expedite the expansion of essential sectors of the economy, to meet the equipment needs of strategically vital sectors, and to create jobs and income. The government took over a substantial number of “sick units” from the private sector.

In addition, in 1969, Indira Gandhi’s government nationalized fourteen of India’s largest private banks, followed by six more in 1980. Until the 1991 Indian economic crisis, this government-led industrial policy with accompanying constraints on private enterprise was the main pattern of Indian economic development.

Following the crisis, the government began selling off its stake in a number of PSUs in order to raise funds and privatize enterprises with poor financial performance and efficiency.


Additional financial autonomy has been granted to certain public sector businesses. These are “public sector enterprises with comparative advantages,” which are given more liberty to compete in the global market in order to “assist [them] in their quest to become global giants.” In 1997, nine PSUs were given Navratna status, which gave them financial autonomy.

The name Navaratna originally referred to a talisman made up of nine valuable gems. Later, in the courts of Gupta emperor Vikramaditya and Mughal emperor Akbar, this title was used as the collective appellation for nine exceptional courtiers at their respective courts. [requires citation]

The government introduced the higher Maharatna category in 2010, raising the investment threshold for a corporation from 1,000 crores to 5,000 crores.

Maharatna corporations can now invest up to 15% of their net value in a project, while Navaratna companies can invest up to 1,000 crores without seeking specific government permission. Miniratnas are divided into two groups, each with a different level of financial autonomy.

List of Central Public Sector Units

Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs), Public Sector Banks (PSBs), and State Level Public Enterprises (SLPEs) are the three types of PSUs (SLPEs). The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises is in charge of CPSEs. The Ministry of Finance’s Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) is the nodal department for all Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs).

There are 11 Maharatnas, 13 Navratnas, and 73 Miniratnas as of October 2021. (divided into Category 1 and Category 2).

Maharatna CPSEs are listed below.

  • Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited is a company based in India (BHEL)
  • The Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited is a public limited company based in India (BPCL)
  • Coal India Limited is a company based in India (CIL)
  • India’s Gas Authority Limited (GAIL)
  •  Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited is a public limited company based in India (HPCL)
  • IOC Limited (Indian Oil Corporation) (IOCL)
  • NTP Corporation (National Thermal Power Corporation) (NTPC)
  • The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation is a company that produces oil and natural gas (ONGC)
  • India’s Power Grid Corporation
  • Steel Authority of India Limited is a company based in India (SAIL)
  • Power Finance Corporation Limited is a company that invests in renewable energy.

Navratna CPSEs are listed below.

  • Bharat Electronics Limited is a company based in India (BEL)
  • India’s Container Corporation (CONCOR)

Engineers India Limited is a company based in India (EIL)

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited is a company based in India (HAL)

  • Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited is a company based in Mahanagar, India (MTNL)
  • National Aluminium Corporation of Canada (NALCO)
  • National Buildings Construction Corporation is a construction company based in the United States (NBCC)
  • Mineral Development Corporation of the United States (NMDC)
  • NLC India is a company based in India (Neyveli Lignite)
  • Oil India Limited (OIL INDIA) (OIL)
  • Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited is a public limited company based in India (RINL)

Rural Electrification Corporation

• India’s Shipping Corporation (SCI)

Miniratna CPSE List

Category-I Miniratna (61)

  • India’s Airports Authority (AAI)
  • Antrix Corporation is a company based in the United States.
  • Lawrie, Balmer
  • Bharat Coking Coal Limited (Bharat Coking Coal) (BCCL)
  • Bharat Dynamics Limited is a company based in India (BDL)
  • Bharat Earth Movers Limited is a company based in India (BEML)
  • Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is a public-sector company based in India (BSNL)
  • Bridge and Roofing Contractors (India)
  • Central Electronics Limited (Central Electronics)
  • The Central Warehousing Corporation is a company that specializes in warehousing.
  • Central Coalfields Limited is a coal mining company based in the United Kingdom.

The Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited is a company that specializes in mine planning and design.

Chennai Petroleum Corporation is a company based in Chennai

  • Shipyard in Cochin (CSL)
  • Cotton Corporation of India Limited is a private company based in India (CCIL)
  • EdCIL (India) Limited is a company based in India.

Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers

  • Shipyard in Goa (GSL)
  • Copper from Hindustan (HCL)
  • HLL Lifecare, Inc.
  • Newsprint from Hindustan
  • Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited is a company based in India.
  • HUD (Habitat for Humanity and Urban Development) (HUDCO)
  • HSCC India Limited is a company based in India.
  • Tourism Development Corporation of India (ITDC)
  • Rare Earths from India
  • Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation) (IRCTC)
  • Railway Finance Corporation of India
  • Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited is a company that develops renewable energy in India.
  • Trade Promotion Organization of India (ITPO)
  • International Ircon

Kudremukh Iron Ore Company is a company that produces iron ore (KIOCL)

Mazagon Dock Limited is a company based in Mazagon, England.

  • Coalfields of Mahanadi (MCL)
  • MOIL Limited is a company based in the United Kingdom.
  • Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited is a company based in Mangalore, India (MRPL)

Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited is a company that specializes in mineral exploration.

  • Mishra Dhatu Nigam (Mishra Dhatu Nigam)
  • MMTC Ltd. is a company based in the United Kingdom.
  • MSTC Limited is a company based in the United Kingdom.
  • National Fertilizers is a fertilizer company based in the United States (NFL)
  • National Projects Construction Corporation is a construction company based in the United States.
  • National Small Business Administration
  • Seed Corporation of the United States (NSC)
  • NHPC Limited is a company based in New Hampshire.
  • Coalfields of the North (NCL)

The North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited is a company based in India (NEEPCL)

The Numaligarh Refinery is a refinery in Numaligarh, India.

  • ONGC Videsh Limited (ONGC Videsh)
  • Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited is a company that specializes in helicopters.
  • Projects and Development India Limited is a company based in India (PDIL)
  • India’s RailTel Corporation
  • Rail Vikas Nigam Limited (Rail Vikas Nigam) (RVNL)
  • Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers (Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers) (RCF)
  • SJVN Limited (SJVN)
  • India’s Security Printing and Minting Corporation
  • Coalfields of the South East (SECL)
  • India’s Telecommunications Consultants (TCIL)
  • THDC India Limited is a company based in India.
  • Coalfields of Western Australia (WCL)
  • WAPCOS Limited (WAPCOS)
  • Category-II Miniratna (12)
  • India’s Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation
  • Bharat Pumps & Compressors (Bharat Pumps & Compressors)
  • Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Limited is a company that specializes in broadcast engineering.
  • Central Railside Warehouse Company Limited is a company that specializes in warehousing for

Engineering Projects (India) Limited is a company based in India.

  • FCI Aravali Gypsum and Minerals (India) Limited (FCI Aravali Gypsum and Minerals (India) Limited (FCI Aravali Gy
  • Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited is a company that specializes in ferro scrap.
  • HMT International Limited is a company based in London.
  • Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation Limited is a private company based in India.
  • India’s National Film Development Corporation (NFDC)

Rajasthan Electronics and Instruments Limited is a company based in Rajasthan, India.

PSUs for defense

  • Advanced Weapons and Equipment India Limited is a company that manufactures advanced weapons and equipment in India (AWE)
  • Nigam Limited for Armoured Vehicles (AVANI)
  • Gliders India Limited is a company that manufactures gliders in India.
  • India Optel Limited (India Optel)
  • Munitions India Limited is a private company based in India.
  • Yantra India Limited is a company based in India.
  • Limited Troop Amenities

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Full Form

Full Form of TDs Game



TDS is an acronym that can stand for different things depending on the context. In this article, we will focus on the meaning of TDS in games, especially in the popular Roblox game Tower Defense Simulator.

What is Tower Defense Simulator?

What is Tower Defense Simulator?

Tower Defense Simulator (TDS) is a game made by Paradoxum Games created on the 5th of June 2019 and officially released on the 14th of June 2019.

It involves players teaming up with one another to fight waves of different enemies until they either are overrun or triumph that particular map.

Players gain cash by damaging enemies and from wave bonuses, which can subsequently be invested in buying new towers or upgrading existing ones.

Once players are defeated or triumph, they gain EXP, which is used to level up, and Coins or Gems, which can be used to purchase new towers, emotes or skins.

What are the features of Tower Defense Simulator?

Tower Defense Simulator has many features that make it an engaging and fun game to play. Some of these features are:

  • A variety of towers and units with different abilities and costs
  • A variety of maps and gamemodes with different difficulties and rewards
  • A cosmetic system that allows players to customize their appearance and towers
  • A ranking system that shows players’ progress and achievements
  • A community system that allows players to chat, trade and join clans
  • A merchandising system that offers official TDS merchandise for fans

What are some tips and tricks for playing Tower Defense Simulator?

Tower Defense Simulator is a game that requires strategy, teamwork and coordination. Here are some tips and tricks that can help players improve their skills and enjoy the game more:

  1. Learn the strengths and weaknesses of each tower and unit
    Plan ahead and place your towers wisely
  2. Upgrade your towers regularly and use their abilities when needed
  3. Communicate with your teammates and cooperate with them
    Use the shop and the inventory to buy and sell items
    Explore different maps and gamemodes to challenge yourself
    Join the official TDS Discord server and the TDS Wikia for more information and support

FAQ: The Ultimate Guide to Your Questions

Q: What is the full form of TDS in games?

A: The full form of TDS in games is Tower Defense Simulator.

Q: Is Tower Defense Simulator free to play?

A: Yes, Tower Defense Simulator is free to play on Roblox.

Q: How many players can play Tower Defense Simulator together?

A: Tower Defense Simulator supports up to 50 players per server.

Q: How can I get more Coins or Gems in Tower Defense Simulator?

A: You can get more Coins or Gems by playing the game, completing quests, participating in events, watching ads, or buying them with Robux.

Q: What are some other games similar to Tower Defense Simulator?

A: Some other games similar to Tower Defense Simulator are Tower Battles, Juke’s Towers of Hell, Arena Tower Defense, etc.

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PM Full Form And AM Full, What Is PM And AM



PM Full Form: Post Meridiem Before you can appreciate what AM and PM mean in the context of the 12-hour clock system, you must first comprehend the 12-hour clock system.

The 12-hour clock system is the most common time convention used in analogue and digital clocks. In most English-speaking countries and former British colonies, this is a popular way to tell the time. The 12-hour clock convention divides each day’s 24 hours into two periods: AM and PM.

Please clearly explain the PM Full Form and Am Full Form

PM Full Form

In the 12-hour convention, the Latin phrases AM and PM are employed to signify time. The letters A.M. and P.M. stand for Ante Meridiem and Post Meridiem, respectively. Meridiem is a Latin term that roughly translates to “midday” (Meri means mid and Diem means day).

As a result, Ante Meridiem means “before noon”, and Post Meridiem means “afternoon.” AM and PM refer to the time before and afternoon in the 12-hour clock system.

To visualise this, think of it as two 12-hour time zones that symbolise day and night. In general, a 24-hour period is divided into two 12-hour time zones (before noon and afternoon).

The first 12-hour period begins at midnight and ends at noon, which is referred to as AM (12 a.m. to 12 p.m.). The second 12-hour period, represented by PM, begins at noon and ends at midnight (12 p.m. to 12 a.m.).

Let’s look at some examples to help us comprehend. When someone says it’s 9 a.m., they’re referring to the time in the morning. As a result, it depicts the day clock from 12 a.m. to 12 p.m. (exactly at 11:59 a.m.).

Similarly, when someone says it’s 9 p.m., they’re referring to the time in the evening. As a result, the night clock runs from 12 p.m. to 12 a.m. (precisely, 11:59 p.m.).

These rules are in place to help people better grasp time. If someone says they’ll meet you at 8 o’clock tomorrow, it’s unclear if they meant 8 o’clock in the morning or 8 o’clock in the evening. To avoid this type of time-related confusion, the 24-hour day is divided into two 12-hour cycles.

Another typical misunderstanding is the difference between 12 a.m. and 12 p.m., which is not exactly right. There is no such thing as 12 o’clock in the morning or 12 o’clock in the evening.

It’s called 12 o’clock in the afternoon (12 o’clock in the afternoon) and 12 o’clock in the evening (12 o’clock in the (12 a.m.).

To avoid confusion, many businesses, such as airlines and banks, use 12:01 a.m. to mark the commencement of an event that begins with the day’s onset and 11:59 p.m. to mark the end of any event that concludes with the day.

Frequently Asked Questions (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. How do I change a 12-hour clock to a 24-hour clock?

Ans: Converting a 12-hour format to a 24-hour format is rather straightforward. The 24-hour clock is a timekeeping system that runs from 12 a.m. to 12 a.m., or from hour 0 to hour 23. It is simply 0:00 hours if it is 12 a.m.

(12 at midnight). Then 1:00 a.m. is written as 1:00 hours, and so on until 12 p.m. (12 o’clock), which is written as 12:00 hours. Add 12 hours from 1:00 p.m. to 11:59 p.m. For example, if the time is 2:00 p.m., the time is 14:00 p.m. in 24-hour time format (2+12= 14).

Q2. Is 12 a.m. or 12 p.m.?

Ans: One of the most perplexing aspects of time for many individuals is determining if 12 midnight is AM or PM. Similarly, what is the name for 12 o’clock at noon? 12 a.m. is midnight, and 12 p.m. is noon, according to the convention. However, it is preferable to use 12 p.m. and 12 a.m. to avoid confusion.

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DNS Full Form: What Is DNS and About All Details



What exactly is DNS Full Form?

DNS Full Form

DNS Full Form: The Domain Name System (DNS) converts human-readable domain names (such as to machine-readable IP addresses.

DNS Fundamentals

All machines on the Internet use numbers to find and connect with one another, from your smartphone or laptop to the servers that deliver content for big retail websites.

The IP addresses are the names for these numbers. You don’t have to remember and input a long number when you open a web browser and go to a website. Instead, you can type in a domain name like and be directed to the correct location.

A DNS Full Form (Domain Name System) and services such as Amazon Route 53, are a globally distributed service that converts human-readable names such as into numeric IP addresses such as that computers use to connect to one another.

The DNS system on the Internet manages the mapping between names and numbers in a similar way to a phone book. DNS servers convert requests for names into IP addresses, allowing users to choose which server they want to visit when they type a domain name into their browser. Queries are the term for these requests.

Different Types of DNS Services

Authoritative DNS: An authoritative DNS service is a service that allows developers to control their public DNS names by providing an updating method. It then responds to DNS requests by converting domain names to IP addresses, allowing computers to communicate with one another.

Authoritative DNS has final authority over a domain and is responsible for supplying IP address information to recursive DNS servers. Amazon Route 53 is a DNS scheme that is authoritative.

Clients rarely query authoritative DNS services directly, hence recursive DNS is used. Instead, they usually link to a resolver, also known as a recursive DNS service, which is a different type of DNS service. A recursive DNS service functions similarly to a hotel concierge.

it does not hold any DNS records, but it acts as an intermediary to obtain DNS information on your behalf. When a recursive DNS cache or stores a DNS reference for a length of time, it responds to a DNS query by providing the source or IP information. If you can’t find the information, it sends the query to one or more authoritative DNS servers.

What is DNS’s role in traffic routing to your web application?

The graphic below shows how authoritative and recursive DNS services work together to direct a user to your website or application.

1. A user launches a web browser and types into the address box.

2. A DNS resolver, which is normally handled by the user’s Internet service provider (ISP), such as a cable Internet provider, a DSL broadband provider, or a corporate network, receives the request for

3. The ISP’s DNS resolver routes requests to the DNS root name server.

4. The ISP’s DNS resolver sends the request for to one of the TLD name servers domains once more. The names of the four Amazon Route 53 name servers associated with the domain are returned by the name server domains.

5. The ISP’s DNS resolver selects an Amazon Route 53 name server and routes requests to that server.

6. The Amazon Route 53 name server looks for the record in the hosted zone, retrieves the associated value, such as, and delivers the IP address to the DNS resolver.

7. The ISP’s DNS resolver now has the IP address that the user requires. The web browser receives that value from the resolver. DNS resolver also caches (stores) the IP address for for the time period you selected, so it can respond faster the next time someone visits See Time to Live for further details (TTL).

8. The web browser requests using the IP address obtained from the DNS resolver. This is where your content is stored, for example, on an Amazon EC2 web server or an Amazon S3 bucket configured as a website endpoint.

9. A web server or other resource at sends’s web page to a web browser, where the browser displays.

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MD Full Form | What is MD and About All Details



MD Full Form: Doctor of Medicine is the full form for Because MD is a postgraduate degree, applicants must have an MBBS degree to be considered for the programme.

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) holds the Joint Medical Services Exam every year in order to hire these professionals in various government agencies.

What is the MD and MD Full Form?

MD Full Form

Doctor of Medicine is the full form of M.D. M.D. is a three-year postgraduate degree earned after finishing an MBBS programme in medicine. M.D. is recognised in nonsurgical disciplines after three years of training.

After completing the M.D. programme and career

• M.D. graduates will be able to find work in both the business and public sectors.

• Doctors with an M.D. can apply for a variety of government employment.

• Doctors with an M.D. degree will be able to find work in the private sector, such as hospitals, and will be paid more.

The Medical Council of India has approved many M.D. degrees.

  • Anesthesiology MD
  • Aviation Medicine MD
  • Biochemistry MD
  • Community Medicine MD
  • Biophysics (M.D.)
  • Dermatology (M.D.)
  • Hospital Administration (M.D.)
  • Medical Doctorate in Laboratory Medicine
  • Nuclear Medicine MD
  • Gynaecology and Obstetrics, M.D.
  • Ophthalmology MD
  • MD in Pathology
  • Medical Doctorate in Physiology
  • Radiotherapy MD
  • Doctor of Medicine in Social and Preventive Medicine
  • General Medicine MD
  • Forensic Medicine MD, and many others.

A Pre-Med programme does not guarantee entrance to medical school or allow one to become a doctor, but they are required to enter an M.D. programme. Medicine is a fiercely competitive field. To be admitted, students are expected to maintain excellent undergraduate grade point averages (GPA).

United States of America

A Doctor of Medicine is the first professional medical degree in the United States (M.D.) To pursue an M.D., a student must first complete a four-year undergraduate degree.

After completing undergraduate education, the graduate must pass the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) before continuing on to the four-year M.D. programme.

Students should be prepared to take on the intricacies and complexity of medicine as a result of the long training and rigorous evaluation.

India and the United Kingdom are both developing economies.

M.D. is an advanced academic degree in the field of medical science, akin to a doctorate or a PhD, in India and the United Kingdom. Students in India begin with an MBBS degree.

Its completion indicates the level of education required to become a licensed physician. An MD degree is a higher level of postgraduate education in specialist training.

Medical graduates with an MBBS degree are the only ones who can pursue an M.D. degree. After successfully completing a three-year programme and passing the relevant practical and theoretical exams, a candidate is awarded the M.D. degree.

The Educational Commission

The Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) mandates that all medical education credentials, including MBBS graduate school records and any subsequent degrees, be fully disclosed.

The International Medical Education Directory (IMED) covers the title of the medical degree issued in different nations and lists and gives information on thousands of medical schools across the world. The Foundation for Advancement of Medical Education and Research (FAMER) manages IMED (FAIMER).

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SEBI Full Form: What Is SEBI And About All Details



SEBI Full Form: The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is India’s securities and commodity market regulator, reporting to the Ministry of Finance of the Indian government.

The SEBI Act of 1992 was formed on April 12, 1992, and gave it Statutory Powers on January 30, 1992.

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was founded in 1988 as a non-statutory regulatory agency for the securities industry.

With the passage of the SEBI Act 1992 by the Indian Parliament, it became an autonomous organization with statutory powers on January 30, 1992.

What is SEBI and SEBI full form

SEBI Full Form


SEBI is headquartered in Mumbai’s Bandra Kurla Complex commercial district, with regional offices in New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Ahmedabad.

In the financial year 2013–2014, it opened offices in Jaipur and Bangalore and Guwahati, Bhubaneshwar, Patna, Kochi, and Chandigarh.

Before SEBI, the regulating authority was the Controller of Capital Issues, which had authority under the Capital Issues (Control) Act of 1947.

SEBI is run by its members, who include the following individuals:

• The chairman is appointed by the Indian Union Government.

• Two officers from the Union Finance Ministry, i.e., two members.

• One member from India’s Reserve Bank.

• The Union Government of India nominates the remaining five members, at least three of whom must be full-time members.

Except for this, chit funds, and cooperatives, collective investment plans were brought in under SEBI with an amendment of 1999.

Structure of the company

On February 10, 2017, Ajay Tyagi was appointed chairman, succeeding U K Sinha[3], and took office on March 1, 2017. His position as chairman of SEBI was extended for another six months in February 2020.

The following are the members of the board:

Responsibilities and functions

The primary functions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India are described in the Preamble as “…to protect the interests of investors in securities, to encourage the development of, and to regulate the securities market, and for issues connected with or incidental thereto.”

SEBI must respond to the demands of three segments that make up the market:

  • Security issuers
  • Investors
  • Middlemen in the market

SEBI combines quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial, and quasi-executive authorities into one body. In its legislative role, it writes regulations; in its executive role.

it conducts investigations and enforcement actions; and in its judicial role, it issues findings and orders. Although this gives it a lot of authority, there is an appeals mechanism in place to ensure accountability.

A three-member Securities Appellate Tribunal, led by Justice Tarun Agarwala, former Chief Justice of the Meghalaya High Court, is currently in charge.

A second appeal can be made to the Supreme Court immediately. SEBI has adopted a proactive approach to aligning disclosure rules with international best practices.


EBI has been given the following authority in order to carry out its functions effectively:

  • To approve securities exchange bylaws.
  • To compel the Securities Exchange to modify its bylaws.
  • Examine the books of accounts and request periodic returns from reputable stock exchanges.
  • Examine financial intermediaries’ books of accounts.
  • Require select businesses to list their stock on one or more stock exchanges.
  • Brokers and sub-brokers must be registered.

SEBI committees are made up of people who work for the Securities and Exchange Commission:

  • Technical Advisory Group
  • Structure Review Committee for Infrastructure Institutions
  • SEBI Investor Protection and Education Fund Advisory Committee
  • Advisory Committee on Takeover Regulations
  • Advisory Committee for the Primary Market (PMAC)
  • Advisory Committee on Secondary Markets (SMAC)
  • Advisory Committee for Mutual Funds
  • Advisory Committee on Corporate Bonds and Securitization

Brokers are divided into two categories:

  • Low-cost brokers
  • Agents for merchants

Malpractices in the security market must be eliminated.

Major accomplishments

SEBI has been a successful regulator because it has pushed for systematic reforms systematically and orderly.

SEBI is praised for moving quickly to make markets electronic and paperless by implementing the T+5 rolling cycle in July 2001, T+3 in April 2002, and T+2 in April 2003.

The T+2 rolling cycle means that the settlement takes place two days after the trade date.

SEBI has been quite active in establishing the regulations that are necessary by law.

Bypassing the Depositories Act, 1996, SEBI eliminated physical certificates that were vulnerable to mail delays, theft, and fraud, making the settlement process lengthy and inefficient.

In the wake of the global financial crisis and the Satyam debacle, SEBI has been essential in taking swift and effective action.

[requires citation] It expanded the scope and quantity of disclosures required of Indian business promoters in October 2011.

The aftermath of the global financial crisis liberalized the takeover law to make investments easier by reducing regulatory barriers. SEBI has upped the application limit for retail investors from 100,000 to 200,000 in one such step.


The Supreme Court of India heard a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) submitted by the India Rejuvenation Initiative, which questioned the government of India’s procedure for critical appointments.

The constitution of the search-cum-selection committee for suggesting the name of the chairman and all full-time members of SEBI for an appointment has been amended, the petition claimed, “which directly influenced its balance and could impair the SEBI’s role as a watchdog.”

On November 21, 2011, the court authorized petitioners to withdraw their petition and file a new one, citing constitutional concerns over regulator selections and independence.

The Chief Justice of India turned down the finance ministry’s motion to dismiss the PIL, stating that the court was well aware of the situation at SEBI.

A two-judge Supreme Court panel comprising Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar and Justice HL Gokhale issued a notice to the Government of India, SEBI chairman UK Sinha, and Omita Paul, Secretary to the President of India, after hearing a similar case brought by Bengaluru-based lawyer Anil Kumar Agarwal.

Furthermore, it was revealed that Dr. K. M. Abraham (at the time, a full-time member of the SEBI Board) had written to the Prime Minister regarding the agency’s dysfunction.

The regulatory institution is under strain and serious attack by big corporate interests working together to weaken SEBI,” he said. He said that the Finance Minister’s office, particularly his advisor Omita Paul, was attempting to sway various SEBI cases, including those involving Sahara Group, Reliance, Bank of Rajasthan, and MCX.

Regional Securities Exchange and SEBI full form

SEBI full form (Securities and Exchange Board of India) has issued exit – instructions for securities exchanges in a circular dated May 30, 2012. This was mostly owing to the illiquid characteristics of many of the 20+ regional securities markets.

Many of these exchanges were asked to either meet the required criteria or gracefully quit. SEBI’s new rules for securities exchanges stipulate that they must have a minimum net worth of Rs. 1 billion and Rs.

10 billion in yearly trade. The Indian Securities and Exchange Board (SEBI Full Form: Securities and Exchange Board of India) gave recognized securities exchanges two years to comply or depart the market.

De-recognition and exit procedure

Here are some extracts from the Circular:

1. Exchanges may attempt to leave by voluntarily relinquishing recognition.

2. Securities with an annual trading turnover of less than Rs 10 billion on their platform can apply to SEBI for voluntary surrender of recognition and departure at any time before the two years after the date of issuance of this Circular expires.

3. If a Securities exchange fails to achieve the prescribed turnover of Rs 10 billion continuously or does not apply for voluntary surrender of recognition and exit within two years of the date of this Circular, SEBI may proceed with compulsory de-recognition and exit of such Securities Exchange, subject to SEBI’s discretion.

4. Securities exchanges that have already been de-recognized as of the date of this Circular must apply for exit within two months of the date of this circular. If it fails to do so, the de-recognized exchange will be forced to depart the market.

Departments of the SEBI

Through its 20 sections, SEBI oversees the Indian financial market.

  • Department of Commodity Derivatives Market Regulation (CDMRD)
  • Finance Department of the Corporation (CFD)
  • Economic and Policy Analysis Department (DEPA)
  • Debt and Hybrid Securities Department (DDHS)
  • Department of Law Enforcement – 1 (EFD1)
  • Department of Law Enforcement – 2 (EFD2)
  • Department of Inquiries and Adjudication (EAD)
  • Department of General Services (GSD)
  • Department of Human Resources (HRDM)
  • Department of Information Technology (ITD)
  • Department of Integrated Surveillance (ISD)
  • Department of Investigations (IVD)
  • Department of Investment Management (IMD)
  • Department of Legal Affairs (LAD)
  • Department of Market Intermediaries Regulation and Supervision (MIRSD)
  • Department of Market Regulation (MRD)
  • International Affairs Office (OIA)
  • Investor Assistance and Education Office (OIAE)
  • Chairman’s Office (OCH)
  • Offices in the region (ROs)

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