ICT Full Form: Information and Communications Technology is the full form of ICT.
Because ICT methods and implementations change on a daily basis, it is impossible to explain ICT in a definite way.
It refers to any device that maintains, stores, and manages digital data, such as cell phones and computers.
What is the ICT and ICT Full Form?
ICT refers to the technical tools and services that are used to operate network-based monitoring and control devices, telecommunications, smart building management systems, audiovisual processing and transmission systems, broadcast media, and other similar applications.
ICT components come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
The term ICT is widely understood to refer to all technologies that allow individuals and organizations to connect in the digital world.
- Information and Communication Technologies
- Computing on the cloud
- Access to the internet
- The Importance of Information and Communication Technologies
- Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an essential component of modern society.
- Businesses use ICT in a variety of ways to increase profitability, gain clients, improve efficiency, and so on.
- Current technologies are being enhanced by ICT systems that add smart or intelligent capabilities.
- The information and communication technology (ICT) sector has a direct and indirect impact on economic development.
- A modern communications network can also be utilized to help businesses advertise and grow.
- Many products and services rely on ICT, whether consciously or unconsciously.
Convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks
The convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks via single cabling or link system is also referred to as ICT.
There are significant financial incentives to combine the telephone and computer networks into unified cabling, signal distribution, and management systems.
ICT is a broad phrase that encompasses all forms of communication, including radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems, and so on, as well as the myriad services and appliances that go along with them, such as video conferencing and distant learning.
ICT also includes analogue technology, such as paper communication and any means of communication transmission.
ICT is a wide topic with constantly changing notions.
It includes any product that stores, retrieves, manipulates, transmits, or receives data in a digital format (e.g., personal computers including smartphones, digital television, email, or robots). Piyush Mathur, a philosopher, has discovered theoretical contrasts between interpersonal and mass communication technologies.
The Information Age Skills Framework is one of many approaches for describing and managing abilities for ICT professionals in the twenty-first century.
Etymology and ICT Full Form
Since the 1980s, academic scholars have used the phrase “information and communication technologies.”
After Dennis Stevenson adopted the abbreviation “ICT” in a report to the UK government in 1997, and then in the new National Curriculum for England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in 2000, it became common.
The Royal Society, on the other hand, proposed in 2012 that the term “ICT” be phased out of British schools because it “has gained too many negative connotations. The word computing has been used in the National Curriculum since 2014, reflecting the addition of computer programming to the curriculum.
The term has taken on many different forms all around the world. A “United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force” and an internal “Office of Information and Communications Technology” have been established by the United Nations.
Global IT spending was predicted to be US$3.8 trillion in 2017 and has grown at a rate of less than 5% each year since 2009. The overall ICT industry is expected to increase at a rate of 5% in 2018. New technologies (IoT, Robotics, AR/VR, and AI) are predicted to increase at the fastest rate by 16 per cent.
The US federal government’s IT budget in 2014 was over $82 billion.
IT costs have increased by 50% as a percentage of business revenue since 2002, putting a strain on IT budgets. In today’s IT budgets, recurrent costs (used to “keep the lights on” in the IT department) account for 75% of the total, while new technology development efforts account for 25%.
The following is a breakdown of the average IT budget:
• Personnel costs are up 31%. (internal)
• Software costs (external/purchasing category) account for 29% of total costs.
• Hardware costs account for 26% of total costs (external/purchasing category).
• External service provider charges (external/services) account for 14% of total costs.
The amount of money expected to be spent in 2022 is estimated to be just over $6 trillion.
The world’s technological capacity for storing information increased from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 exabytes in 1993, 54.5 exabytes in 2000, 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007, and 5 zettabytes in 2014.
In 2007, this was the equivalent of 1.25 stacks of CD-ROM from Earth to Moon, while in 2014, it was the equivalent of 4,500 stacks of printed books from Earth to Sun.
In 1986, the world’s technological capacity for receiving information over one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of (optimally compressed) data, 715 exabytes in 1993, 1.2 (optimally compressed) zettabytes in 2000, and 1.9 zettabytes in 2007.
In 1986, the world’s effective capacity for exchanging information via two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes, 471 petabytes in 1993, 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, 65 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007, and around 100 exabytes in 2014.
From 3.0 108 MIPS in 1986 to 6.4 x 1012 MIPS in 2007, the world’s technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided general-purpose computers grew.
Index of Information and Communication Technology Development
The ICT Development Index ranks and compares the use and accessibility of ICT in different countries throughout the world.
Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, Macao (China), New Zealand, Singapore, and the United States; almost all countries surveyed improved their IDI ranking this year.
According to the top 30 countries in the rankings, which include countries from Europe and other regions such as “Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, Macao (China), New Zealand, Singapore, and the United States.
Goals for ICT development, the WSIS process | ICT Full Form
The United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 56/183 on December 21, 2001, approving the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) to explore the potential and problems that the information society faces today.
According to this resolution, the General Assembly linked the Summit to the United Nations Millennium Declaration’s purpose of using ICT to fulfill the Millennium Development Goals. It also underlined the importance of a multi-stakeholder approach to achieving these objectives, with all stakeholders, including civil society and the commercial sector and governments, participating.
2015 is the date for achieving the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which global leaders agreed on in the year 2000, to help embed and grow ICT to every habitable portion of the world.”
In terms of education,
There is evidence that ICT must be thoroughly integrated into the pedagogy in order to be effective in education. When teaching reading and numeracy, combining ICT with Writing to Learn yields greater results than traditional techniques or ICT alone.
UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, has made incorporating ICT into education a priority in its efforts to provide equity and access to education. The following is a UNESCO publication on educational ICT quote that describes the organization’s stance on the effort.
Communication and information Universal access to education, educational equity, the delivery of high-quality learning and instruction, teacher professional development, and more effective education management, governance, and administration can all benefit from technology.
To promote ICT in education, UNESCO uses a holistic and complete strategy. Among the key concerns they can solve are access, inclusiveness, and quality.
The Organization’s Intersectoral Platform for ICT in Education addresses these concerns by bringing together three sectors: communication and information, education, and science.
Although the ability of computers
Although the ability of computers to improve and reform teaching and learning practises, improper implementation is a widespread problem that is beyond the reach of increased funding and technological advancements, with little evidence that teachers and tutors are properly integrating ICT into daily learning.
Intrinsic constraints such as a belief in more traditional teaching approaches and individual attitudes about computers in education, as well as the instructors’ own comfort level with computers and ability to utilise them all, all contribute to various levels of ICT integration in the classroom.
Refugees may learn on the go.
Mobile learning for refugees is the main topic of this article.
The school environment has a significant impact on language learning. However, language and literacy hurdles, particularly outside of camp settings, prohibit refugees from accessing and attending education.
Apps for mobile-assisted language learning are important resources for language learners. In three primary areas: literacy development, foreign language learning, and translations, mobile solutions can help refugees with their language and literacy issues.
Because communicative practice is a significant advantage for refugees and immigrants as they immerse themselves in a new language and society, mobile technology is relevant.
Mobile language learning activities that are well-designed connect refugees with mainstream cultures, allowing them to study in natural settings.
Full Form of TDs Game
TDS is an acronym that can stand for different things depending on the context. In this article, we will focus on the meaning of TDS in games, especially in the popular Roblox game Tower Defense Simulator.
What is Tower Defense Simulator?
Tower Defense Simulator (TDS) is a game made by Paradoxum Games created on the 5th of June 2019 and officially released on the 14th of June 2019.
It involves players teaming up with one another to fight waves of different enemies until they either are overrun or triumph that particular map.
Players gain cash by damaging enemies and from wave bonuses, which can subsequently be invested in buying new towers or upgrading existing ones.
Once players are defeated or triumph, they gain EXP, which is used to level up, and Coins or Gems, which can be used to purchase new towers, emotes or skins.
What are the features of Tower Defense Simulator?
Tower Defense Simulator has many features that make it an engaging and fun game to play. Some of these features are:
- A variety of towers and units with different abilities and costs
- A variety of maps and gamemodes with different difficulties and rewards
- A cosmetic system that allows players to customize their appearance and towers
- A ranking system that shows players’ progress and achievements
- A community system that allows players to chat, trade and join clans
- A merchandising system that offers official TDS merchandise for fans
What are some tips and tricks for playing Tower Defense Simulator?
Tower Defense Simulator is a game that requires strategy, teamwork and coordination. Here are some tips and tricks that can help players improve their skills and enjoy the game more:
- Learn the strengths and weaknesses of each tower and unit
Plan ahead and place your towers wisely
- Upgrade your towers regularly and use their abilities when needed
- Communicate with your teammates and cooperate with them
Use the shop and the inventory to buy and sell items
Explore different maps and gamemodes to challenge yourself
Join the official TDS Discord server and the TDS Wikia for more information and support
FAQ: The Ultimate Guide to Your Questions
Q: What is the full form of TDS in games?
A: The full form of TDS in games is Tower Defense Simulator.
Q: Is Tower Defense Simulator free to play?
A: Yes, Tower Defense Simulator is free to play on Roblox.
Q: How many players can play Tower Defense Simulator together?
A: Tower Defense Simulator supports up to 50 players per server.
Q: How can I get more Coins or Gems in Tower Defense Simulator?
A: You can get more Coins or Gems by playing the game, completing quests, participating in events, watching ads, or buying them with Robux.
Q: What are some other games similar to Tower Defense Simulator?
A: Some other games similar to Tower Defense Simulator are Tower Battles, Juke’s Towers of Hell, Arena Tower Defense, etc.
PM Full Form And AM Full, What Is PM And AM
PM Full Form: Post Meridiem Before you can appreciate what AM and PM mean in the context of the 12-hour clock system, you must first comprehend the 12-hour clock system.
The 12-hour clock system is the most common time convention used in analogue and digital clocks. In most English-speaking countries and former British colonies, this is a popular way to tell the time. The 12-hour clock convention divides each day’s 24 hours into two periods: AM and PM.
Please clearly explain the PM Full Form and Am Full Form
In the 12-hour convention, the Latin phrases AM and PM are employed to signify time. The letters A.M. and P.M. stand for Ante Meridiem and Post Meridiem, respectively. Meridiem is a Latin term that roughly translates to “midday” (Meri means mid and Diem means day).
As a result, Ante Meridiem means “before noon”, and Post Meridiem means “afternoon.” AM and PM refer to the time before and afternoon in the 12-hour clock system.
To visualise this, think of it as two 12-hour time zones that symbolise day and night. In general, a 24-hour period is divided into two 12-hour time zones (before noon and afternoon).
The first 12-hour period begins at midnight and ends at noon, which is referred to as AM (12 a.m. to 12 p.m.). The second 12-hour period, represented by PM, begins at noon and ends at midnight (12 p.m. to 12 a.m.).
Let’s look at some examples to help us comprehend. When someone says it’s 9 a.m., they’re referring to the time in the morning. As a result, it depicts the day clock from 12 a.m. to 12 p.m. (exactly at 11:59 a.m.).
Similarly, when someone says it’s 9 p.m., they’re referring to the time in the evening. As a result, the night clock runs from 12 p.m. to 12 a.m. (precisely, 11:59 p.m.).
These rules are in place to help people better grasp time. If someone says they’ll meet you at 8 o’clock tomorrow, it’s unclear if they meant 8 o’clock in the morning or 8 o’clock in the evening. To avoid this type of time-related confusion, the 24-hour day is divided into two 12-hour cycles.
Another typical misunderstanding is the difference between 12 a.m. and 12 p.m., which is not exactly right. There is no such thing as 12 o’clock in the morning or 12 o’clock in the evening.
It’s called 12 o’clock in the afternoon (12 o’clock in the afternoon) and 12 o’clock in the evening (12 o’clock in the (12 a.m.).
To avoid confusion, many businesses, such as airlines and banks, use 12:01 a.m. to mark the commencement of an event that begins with the day’s onset and 11:59 p.m. to mark the end of any event that concludes with the day.
Frequently Asked Questions (Frequently Asked Questions)
Q1. How do I change a 12-hour clock to a 24-hour clock?
Ans: Converting a 12-hour format to a 24-hour format is rather straightforward. The 24-hour clock is a timekeeping system that runs from 12 a.m. to 12 a.m., or from hour 0 to hour 23. It is simply 0:00 hours if it is 12 a.m.
(12 at midnight). Then 1:00 a.m. is written as 1:00 hours, and so on until 12 p.m. (12 o’clock), which is written as 12:00 hours. Add 12 hours from 1:00 p.m. to 11:59 p.m. For example, if the time is 2:00 p.m., the time is 14:00 p.m. in 24-hour time format (2+12= 14).
Q2. Is 12 a.m. or 12 p.m.?
Ans: One of the most perplexing aspects of time for many individuals is determining if 12 midnight is AM or PM. Similarly, what is the name for 12 o’clock at noon? 12 a.m. is midnight, and 12 p.m. is noon, according to the convention. However, it is preferable to use 12 p.m. and 12 a.m. to avoid confusion.
DNS Full Form: What Is DNS and About All Details
What exactly is DNS Full Form?
DNS Full Form: The Domain Name System (DNS) converts human-readable domain names (such as www.amazon.com) to machine-readable IP addresses.
All machines on the Internet use numbers to find and connect with one another, from your smartphone or laptop to the servers that deliver content for big retail websites.
The IP addresses are the names for these numbers. You don’t have to remember and input a long number when you open a web browser and go to a website. Instead, you can type in a domain name like example.com and be directed to the correct location.
A DNS Full Form (Domain Name System) and services such as Amazon Route 53, are a globally distributed service that converts human-readable names such as www.example.com into numeric IP addresses such as 192.0.2.1 that computers use to connect to one another.
The DNS system on the Internet manages the mapping between names and numbers in a similar way to a phone book. DNS servers convert requests for names into IP addresses, allowing users to choose which server they want to visit when they type a domain name into their browser. Queries are the term for these requests.
Different Types of DNS Services
Authoritative DNS: An authoritative DNS service is a service that allows developers to control their public DNS names by providing an updating method. It then responds to DNS requests by converting domain names to IP addresses, allowing computers to communicate with one another.
Authoritative DNS has final authority over a domain and is responsible for supplying IP address information to recursive DNS servers. Amazon Route 53 is a DNS scheme that is authoritative.
Clients rarely query authoritative DNS services directly, hence recursive DNS is used. Instead, they usually link to a resolver, also known as a recursive DNS service, which is a different type of DNS service. A recursive DNS service functions similarly to a hotel concierge.
it does not hold any DNS records, but it acts as an intermediary to obtain DNS information on your behalf. When a recursive DNS cache or stores a DNS reference for a length of time, it responds to a DNS query by providing the source or IP information. If you can’t find the information, it sends the query to one or more authoritative DNS servers.
What is DNS’s role in traffic routing to your web application?
The graphic below shows how authoritative and recursive DNS services work together to direct a user to your website or application.
1. A user launches a web browser and types www.example.com into the address box.
2. A DNS resolver, which is normally handled by the user’s Internet service provider (ISP), such as a cable Internet provider, a DSL broadband provider, or a corporate network, receives the request for www.example.com.
3. The ISP’s DNS resolver routes www.example.com requests to the DNS root name server.
4. The ISP’s DNS resolver sends the request for www.example.com to one of the TLD name servers for.com domains once more. The names of the four Amazon Route 53 name servers associated with the example.com domain are returned by the name server for.com domains.
5. The ISP’s DNS resolver selects an Amazon Route 53 name server and routes www.example.com requests to that server.
6. The Amazon Route 53 name server looks for the www.example.com record in the example.com hosted zone, retrieves the associated value, such as 192.0.2.44, and delivers the IP address to the DNS resolver.
7. The ISP’s DNS resolver now has the IP address that the user requires. The web browser receives that value from the resolver. DNS resolver also caches (stores) the IP address for example.com for the time period you selected, so it can respond faster the next time someone visits example.com. See Time to Live for further details (TTL).
8. The web browser requests www.example.com using the IP address obtained from the DNS resolver. This is where your content is stored, for example, on an Amazon EC2 web server or an Amazon S3 bucket configured as a website endpoint.
9. A web server or other resource at 192.0.2.44 sends www.example.com’s web page to a web browser, where the browser displays.
MD Full Form | What is MD and About All Details
MD Full Form: Doctor of Medicine is the full form for Because MD is a postgraduate degree, applicants must have an MBBS degree to be considered for the programme.
The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) holds the Joint Medical Services Exam every year in order to hire these professionals in various government agencies.
What is the MD and MD Full Form?
Doctor of Medicine is the full form of M.D. M.D. is a three-year postgraduate degree earned after finishing an MBBS programme in medicine. M.D. is recognised in nonsurgical disciplines after three years of training.
After completing the M.D. programme and career
• M.D. graduates will be able to find work in both the business and public sectors.
• Doctors with an M.D. can apply for a variety of government employment.
• Doctors with an M.D. degree will be able to find work in the private sector, such as hospitals, and will be paid more.
The Medical Council of India has approved many M.D. degrees.
- Anesthesiology MD
- Aviation Medicine MD
- Biochemistry MD
- Community Medicine MD
- Biophysics (M.D.)
- Dermatology (M.D.)
- Hospital Administration (M.D.)
- Medical Doctorate in Laboratory Medicine
- Nuclear Medicine MD
- Gynaecology and Obstetrics, M.D.
- Ophthalmology MD
- MD in Pathology
- Medical Doctorate in Physiology
- Radiotherapy MD
- Doctor of Medicine in Social and Preventive Medicine
- General Medicine MD
- Forensic Medicine MD, and many others.
A Pre-Med programme does not guarantee entrance to medical school or allow one to become a doctor, but they are required to enter an M.D. programme. Medicine is a fiercely competitive field. To be admitted, students are expected to maintain excellent undergraduate grade point averages (GPA).
United States of America
A Doctor of Medicine is the first professional medical degree in the United States (M.D.) To pursue an M.D., a student must first complete a four-year undergraduate degree.
After completing undergraduate education, the graduate must pass the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) before continuing on to the four-year M.D. programme.
Students should be prepared to take on the intricacies and complexity of medicine as a result of the long training and rigorous evaluation.
India and the United Kingdom are both developing economies.
M.D. is an advanced academic degree in the field of medical science, akin to a doctorate or a PhD, in India and the United Kingdom. Students in India begin with an MBBS degree.
Its completion indicates the level of education required to become a licensed physician. An MD degree is a higher level of postgraduate education in specialist training.
Medical graduates with an MBBS degree are the only ones who can pursue an M.D. degree. After successfully completing a three-year programme and passing the relevant practical and theoretical exams, a candidate is awarded the M.D. degree.
The Educational Commission
The Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) mandates that all medical education credentials, including MBBS graduate school records and any subsequent degrees, be fully disclosed.
The International Medical Education Directory (IMED) covers the title of the medical degree issued in different nations and lists and gives information on thousands of medical schools across the world. The Foundation for Advancement of Medical Education and Research (FAMER) manages IMED (FAIMER).
SEBI Full Form: What Is SEBI And About All Details
SEBI Full Form: The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is India’s securities and commodity market regulator, reporting to the Ministry of Finance of the Indian government.
The SEBI Act of 1992 was formed on April 12, 1992, and gave it Statutory Powers on January 30, 1992.
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was founded in 1988 as a non-statutory regulatory agency for the securities industry.
With the passage of the SEBI Act 1992 by the Indian Parliament, it became an autonomous organization with statutory powers on January 30, 1992.
What is SEBI and SEBI full form
SEBI is headquartered in Mumbai’s Bandra Kurla Complex commercial district, with regional offices in New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Ahmedabad.
In the financial year 2013–2014, it opened offices in Jaipur and Bangalore and Guwahati, Bhubaneshwar, Patna, Kochi, and Chandigarh.
Before SEBI, the regulating authority was the Controller of Capital Issues, which had authority under the Capital Issues (Control) Act of 1947.
SEBI is run by its members, who include the following individuals:
• The chairman is appointed by the Indian Union Government.
• Two officers from the Union Finance Ministry, i.e., two members.
• One member from India’s Reserve Bank.
• The Union Government of India nominates the remaining five members, at least three of whom must be full-time members.
Except for this, chit funds, and cooperatives, collective investment plans were brought in under SEBI with an amendment of 1999.
Structure of the company
On February 10, 2017, Ajay Tyagi was appointed chairman, succeeding U K Sinha, and took office on March 1, 2017. His position as chairman of SEBI was extended for another six months in February 2020.
The following are the members of the board:
Responsibilities and functions
The primary functions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India are described in the Preamble as “…to protect the interests of investors in securities, to encourage the development of, and to regulate the securities market, and for issues connected with or incidental thereto.”
SEBI must respond to the demands of three segments that make up the market:
- Security issuers
- Middlemen in the market
SEBI combines quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial, and quasi-executive authorities into one body. In its legislative role, it writes regulations; in its executive role.
it conducts investigations and enforcement actions; and in its judicial role, it issues findings and orders. Although this gives it a lot of authority, there is an appeals mechanism in place to ensure accountability.
A three-member Securities Appellate Tribunal, led by Justice Tarun Agarwala, former Chief Justice of the Meghalaya High Court, is currently in charge.
A second appeal can be made to the Supreme Court immediately. SEBI has adopted a proactive approach to aligning disclosure rules with international best practices.
EBI has been given the following authority in order to carry out its functions effectively:
- To approve securities exchange bylaws.
- To compel the Securities Exchange to modify its bylaws.
- Examine the books of accounts and request periodic returns from reputable stock exchanges.
- Examine financial intermediaries’ books of accounts.
- Require select businesses to list their stock on one or more stock exchanges.
- Brokers and sub-brokers must be registered.
SEBI committees are made up of people who work for the Securities and Exchange Commission:
- Technical Advisory Group
- Structure Review Committee for Infrastructure Institutions
- SEBI Investor Protection and Education Fund Advisory Committee
- Advisory Committee on Takeover Regulations
- Advisory Committee for the Primary Market (PMAC)
- Advisory Committee on Secondary Markets (SMAC)
- Advisory Committee for Mutual Funds
- Advisory Committee on Corporate Bonds and Securitization
Brokers are divided into two categories:
- Low-cost brokers
- Agents for merchants
Malpractices in the security market must be eliminated.
SEBI has been a successful regulator because it has pushed for systematic reforms systematically and orderly.
SEBI is praised for moving quickly to make markets electronic and paperless by implementing the T+5 rolling cycle in July 2001, T+3 in April 2002, and T+2 in April 2003.
The T+2 rolling cycle means that the settlement takes place two days after the trade date.
SEBI has been quite active in establishing the regulations that are necessary by law.
Bypassing the Depositories Act, 1996, SEBI eliminated physical certificates that were vulnerable to mail delays, theft, and fraud, making the settlement process lengthy and inefficient.
In the wake of the global financial crisis and the Satyam debacle, SEBI has been essential in taking swift and effective action.
[requires citation] It expanded the scope and quantity of disclosures required of Indian business promoters in October 2011.
The aftermath of the global financial crisis liberalized the takeover law to make investments easier by reducing regulatory barriers. SEBI has upped the application limit for retail investors from 100,000 to 200,000 in one such step.
The Supreme Court of India heard a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) submitted by the India Rejuvenation Initiative, which questioned the government of India’s procedure for critical appointments.
The constitution of the search-cum-selection committee for suggesting the name of the chairman and all full-time members of SEBI for an appointment has been amended, the petition claimed, “which directly influenced its balance and could impair the SEBI’s role as a watchdog.”
On November 21, 2011, the court authorized petitioners to withdraw their petition and file a new one, citing constitutional concerns over regulator selections and independence.
The Chief Justice of India turned down the finance ministry’s motion to dismiss the PIL, stating that the court was well aware of the situation at SEBI.
A two-judge Supreme Court panel comprising Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar and Justice HL Gokhale issued a notice to the Government of India, SEBI chairman UK Sinha, and Omita Paul, Secretary to the President of India, after hearing a similar case brought by Bengaluru-based lawyer Anil Kumar Agarwal.
Furthermore, it was revealed that Dr. K. M. Abraham (at the time, a full-time member of the SEBI Board) had written to the Prime Minister regarding the agency’s dysfunction.
The regulatory institution is under strain and serious attack by big corporate interests working together to weaken SEBI,” he said. He said that the Finance Minister’s office, particularly his advisor Omita Paul, was attempting to sway various SEBI cases, including those involving Sahara Group, Reliance, Bank of Rajasthan, and MCX.
Regional Securities Exchange and SEBI full form
SEBI full form (Securities and Exchange Board of India) has issued exit – instructions for securities exchanges in a circular dated May 30, 2012. This was mostly owing to the illiquid characteristics of many of the 20+ regional securities markets.
Many of these exchanges were asked to either meet the required criteria or gracefully quit. SEBI’s new rules for securities exchanges stipulate that they must have a minimum net worth of Rs. 1 billion and Rs.
10 billion in yearly trade. The Indian Securities and Exchange Board (SEBI Full Form: Securities and Exchange Board of India) gave recognized securities exchanges two years to comply or depart the market.
De-recognition and exit procedure
Here are some extracts from the Circular:
1. Exchanges may attempt to leave by voluntarily relinquishing recognition.
2. Securities with an annual trading turnover of less than Rs 10 billion on their platform can apply to SEBI for voluntary surrender of recognition and departure at any time before the two years after the date of issuance of this Circular expires.
3. If a Securities exchange fails to achieve the prescribed turnover of Rs 10 billion continuously or does not apply for voluntary surrender of recognition and exit within two years of the date of this Circular, SEBI may proceed with compulsory de-recognition and exit of such Securities Exchange, subject to SEBI’s discretion.
4. Securities exchanges that have already been de-recognized as of the date of this Circular must apply for exit within two months of the date of this circular. If it fails to do so, the de-recognized exchange will be forced to depart the market.
Departments of the SEBI
Through its 20 sections, SEBI oversees the Indian financial market.
- Department of Commodity Derivatives Market Regulation (CDMRD)
- Finance Department of the Corporation (CFD)
- Economic and Policy Analysis Department (DEPA)
- Debt and Hybrid Securities Department (DDHS)
- Department of Law Enforcement – 1 (EFD1)
- Department of Law Enforcement – 2 (EFD2)
- Department of Inquiries and Adjudication (EAD)
- Department of General Services (GSD)
- Department of Human Resources (HRDM)
- Department of Information Technology (ITD)
- Department of Integrated Surveillance (ISD)
- Department of Investigations (IVD)
- Department of Investment Management (IMD)
- Department of Legal Affairs (LAD)
- Department of Market Intermediaries Regulation and Supervision (MIRSD)
- Department of Market Regulation (MRD)
- International Affairs Office (OIA)
- Investor Assistance and Education Office (OIAE)
- Chairman’s Office (OCH)
- Offices in the region (ROs)
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