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Study: The Aggressive breast cancer has a resistant tumor cell which is already before chemotherapy

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Study: The Aggressive breast cancer has a resistant tumor cell which is already before chemotherapy: Hello, Everyone Today I am going to share some exciting facts on the Aggressive breast cancer has a resistant tumor cell which is already before chemotherapy Study.

Difficult to treat and aggressive “triple-negative” breast cancer is chemoresistant even before chemotherapy begins, a new study by researchers from Karolinska Institute and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre reports.

Study: The Aggressive breast cancer has a resistant tumor cell which is already before chemotherapy

 

The findings, which are publishing in the journal Cell, may lead to better and more personalized treatments for breast cancer.

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women and the most common cause of death in middle-aged women in Sweden.

Triple-negative breast cancer is aggressive and difficult to treat a form of the disease that makes up about 15 percent of all breast cancer cases.

Chemotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment for Triple-Negative” Breast Cancer, used either before surgery or prophylactically after surgery, as well as for treatment of metastatic disease.

Even though several chemotherapy drugs are effective against Triple-Negative” Breast Cancer, resistance to treatment is a common problem since it can ultimately lead to relapse and tumor growth.

For many years’ researchers have been trying to understand why such resistance develops and to prevent or reverse it.

“A key question is whether resistance develops because of the existence of resistant groups of cells, called clones, in a tumor from the start, or whether tumor cells develop new genetic changes mutations during the treatment that causes resistant.

Says Theodoros Foukakis, Associate Professor at Department of Oncology-Pathology at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, who is co-led the study with Associate Professor Nicholas Navin at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, USA.

The researchers are analyzing tumor tissue from 20 patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer who is receiving preoperative chemotherapy. The tissue was collecting before the onset of therapy, after two courses of therapy and in surgery.

The researchers use a technique is called single-cell sequencing to examine the DNA and gene expression of all genes in the individual tumor cells and thus ascertain the cells’ properties and kinship.

“The DNA analyses revealed tumor clones remaining after treatment in half of the cases,” says Dr. Foukakis.

When we study them in detail at a single-cell level, we found that these same clones were present in a tumor before chemotherapy, often as a small minority of the tumor cell population.”

Single-cell RNA sequencing of thousands of cell nuclei showed that the remaining tumor clones had also adapted their gene expression during treatment to become even more chemoresistant.

“All in all, the study shows that chemoresistance in Triple-negative breast cancer is a complex process involving both a selection of resistant clones that are existing in a tumor from the start as well as a reprogramming of their gene expression to ensure survival during therapy,” concludes Dr. Foukakis.

The results may provide a basis for future studies to identify therapy-resistant tumor clones and thus personalize treatment for breast cancer patients who respond poorly to chemotherapy and have a worse prognosis.

The Swedish part of the study was financially by the Swedish Cancer Society, the Cancer Research Funds of Radiumhemmet and StratCan.

The clinical study was part-financed by Roche, the Cancer Research Funds of Radiumhemmet and the Swedish Breast Cancer Association.

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